International consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP): the bumpy road towards a consensus on reporting ANA results

Jan Damoiseaux*, Carlos A. von Muhlen, Ignacio Garcia-De La Torre, Orlando Gabriel Carballo, Wilson de Melo Cruvinel, Paulo Luiz Carvalho Francescantonio, Marvin J. Fritzler, Manfred Herold, Tsuneyo Mimori, Minoru Satoh, Luis E. C. Andrade, Edward K. L. Chan, Karsten Conrad

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The International Consensus on ANA Patterns (ICAP) was initiated as a workshop aiming to thoroughly discuss and achieve consensus regarding the morphological patterns observed in the indirect immunofluorescence assay on HEp-2 cells. One of the topics discussed at the second ICAP workshop, and addressed in this paper, was the harmonization of reporting ANA test results. This discussion centered on the issue if cytoplasmic and mitotic patterns should be reported as positive or negative. This report outlines the issues that impact on two major different reporting methods. Although it was appreciated by all participants that cytoplasmic and mitotic patterns are clinically relevant, implications for existing diagnostic/classification criteria for ANA-associated diseases in particular hampered a final consensus on this topic. Evidently, a more concerted action of all relevant stake-holders is required. Future ICAP workshops may help to facilitate this action.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1
JournalAutoimmunity Highlights
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Anti-nuclear antibodies
  • Indirect immunofluorescence
  • Nuclear patterns
  • Cytoplasmic patterns
  • Mitotic patterns
  • Harmonization


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