In Vivo Imaging Evaluation of Fluorescence Intensity at Tail Emission of Near-Infrared-I (NIR-I) Fluorophores in a Porcine Model

María Rita Rodríguez-Luna*, Nariaki Okamoto, Mahdi Al-Taher, Deborah S Keller, Lorenzo Cinelli, Anila Hoskere Ashoka, Andrey S Klymchenko, Jacques Marescaux, Michele Diana

*Corresponding author for this work

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3 Citations (Web of Science)


Over the last decade fluorescence-guided surgery has been primarily focused on the NIR-I window. However, the NIR-I window has constraints, such as limited penetration and scattering. Consequently, exploring the performance of NIR-I dyes at longer wavelengths (i.e., the NIR-II window) is crucial to expanding its application. Two fluorophores were used in three pigs to identify the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) using two commercially available NIR-I and NIR-II cameras. The near-infrared coating of equipment (NICE) was used to identify endoluminal surgical catheters and indocyanine green (ICG) for common bile duct (CBD) characterization. The NIR-II window evaluation showed an MFI of 0.4 arbitrary units (a.u.) ± 0.106 a.u. in small bowel NICE-coated catheters and an MFI of 0.09 a.u. ± 0.039 a.u. in gastric ones. In CBD characterization, the ICG MFI was 0.12 a.u. ± 0.027 a.u., 0.18 a.u. ± 0.100 a.u., and 0.22 a.u. ± 0.041 a.u. at 5, 35, and 65 min, respectively. This in vivo imaging evaluation of NIR-I dyes confirms its application in the NIR-II domain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing the MIF of NICE in the NIR-II window using a commercially available system. Further comparative trials are necessary to determine the superiority of NIR-II imaging systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1123
Number of pages9
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jul 2022

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