This study investigated automatic associations with the self and with others in the context of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). Participants scoring high (n=20) or low (n=20) on DSM-IV OCPD traits performed three irrelevant-feature tasks in which language of the words (Dutch vs. English) was the relevant stimulus feature and word content (OCPD self-view, OCPD other-view, high self-esteem and low self-esteem) the irrelevant feature. Results showed that the high and low OCPD group differed with respect to both explicit and implicit OCPD cognitions. Typically, high OCPD participants showed better performance on OCPD-congruent trials than on OCPD-incongruent trials, whereas low OCPD participants displayed the opposite pattern. This was evident from a semantic Simon effect and from a semantic priming effect. Correlations between direct and indirect measures of OCPD beliefs and of self-esteem were low. Moreover, the indirect OCPD measures contributed uniquely and independently of explicit beliefs to the prediction of OCPD.
Weertman, A., Arntz, A. R., de Jong, P. J., & Rinck, M. (2008). Implicit self- and other-associations in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits. Cognition & Emotion, 22(7), 1253-1275. https://doi.org/10.1080/13546780701739790