Background: Access-site-related complications are often related to high-risk anatomy and technical pitfalls and impair the outcomes of transfemoral aortic valve implantations (TAVIs). Calcification and tortuosity are widely recognized risk factors, and their impact on procedural planning is left to the implanting experts' discretion. To facilitate decision-making, we introduced a quantitative measure for iliofemoral tortuosity and assessed its predictive value for access-site-related vascular and bleeding complications.
Methods: We performed a single-centre prospective cohort study of consecutive, percutaneous transfemoral TAVI performed between April 2019 and March 2020. Medical history and all-cause mortality were extracted from the electronic patient files. Arterial anatomy and calcifications were evaluated using 3mensio Structural Heart software. The primary outcome was access-site-related vascular or bleeding complications.
Results: In this elderly, intermediate-risk population, we registered the primary outcome in 43 patients (39%), and major access-site complications in 10 patients (9.2%). Complete hemostasis was achieved in 77 patients (70.6%), by the application of the MANTA plug alone. In the group with access-site-related adverse events, compared with the group without, the tortuosity index was higher median (26% interquartile range [IQR 18%-33%] vs median 19% [IQR 13%-29%], respectively; P = 0.012), as was maximal angulation median (50° [IQR 40°-59°] vs median 43° [IQR 36°-51°], respectively; P = 0.026) were higher. Both variables had a significant effect on our primary outcome, with odds ratios (OR) of 3.1 (tortuosity, P = 0.005) and 2.6 (angulation, P = 0.020). The degree of angulation was a predictor of major complications too (odds ratio 7 [1.4-34.8]; P = 0.017).
Conclusions: Steeper angles and greater arterial elongation increase the risk of vascular and bleeding complications after femoral TAVI with the utilization of a plug-based closure device.