Highly Sensitive Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Based Electrochemical Sensors Enhanced by Gold Nanoparticles for Norfloxacin Detection in Aquaculture Water

O.T. Vu, Q.H. Nguyen, T.N. Phan, T.T. Luong, K. Eersels, P. Wagner, L.T.N. Truong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture and pharmaceuticals and their subsequent leaking into the environment have been demonstrated to be a potential route for creating antibiotic resistance in bacteria. In order to assess the impact of this problem and take regulatory measures, it is necessary to develop tools that allow for the detection of antibiotics in environmental samples in a routine, low-cost manner. In this study, we integrated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membrane to fabricate a new sensor for the detection of norfloxacin in pharmaceuticals and aquaculture samples. The receptor layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these studies demonstrate that the addition of AuNPs to the polymer network enhanced the sensor sensitivity by at least a factor of two. The MIP-AuNPs sensor has a low detection limit (0.15 ng/mL, S/N = 3) with a wide linear range and very high sensitivity. The selectivity of the fabricated sensor was measured in the sample containing other antibiotics (like chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin). Rapid and precise norfloxacin detection in pharmaceutical compounds and fishpond water samples indicates that the fabricated sensor has the potential to be used for routine screening of aquacultures and pharmaceutical processes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2887–2896
Number of pages10
JournalAcs omega
Issue number3
Early online date1 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jan 2023



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