Formal and informal appropriation mechanisms: the role of openness and innovativeness

Ann-Kristin Zobel, Boris Lokshin, John Hagedoorn

Research output: Working paperProfessional

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Abstract

This paper analyses how firms’ degree of openness and innovativeness influence their use of formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. Patents, trademarks, copyrights, and design rights are formal appropriation mechanisms. Secrecy, lead-time, and complexity are examples of informal appropriation mechanisms. Both external search breadth and depth are positively associated with firms’ use of informal appropriation mechanisms, while only external search breadth is positively associated with formal appropriation mechanisms. Firms’ degree of radical (incremental) innovation orientation is negatively (positively) associated with their use of formal appropriation mechanisms. Analysis of the joint impact of openness and innovativeness, suggests that for radical innovators it is external search breadth (rather than depth) that has a positive association with the use of informal appropriation mechanisms. In contrast, for radical innovators external search depth (rather than breadth) is associated with the use of formal appropriation mechanisms. For incremental innovators, external search breadth (rather than depth) is associated with the use of both formal and informal appropriation mechanisms.
Original languageEnglish
PublisherMaastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Publication series

SeriesGSBE Research Memoranda
Number040

JEL classifications

  • o34 - Intellectual Property Rights
  • o31 - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
  • o32 - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
  • k11 - Property Law

Keywords

  • Appropriation Mechanisms
  • Formal Appropriation
  • Informal Appropriation
  • External Search Openness
  • Incremental Innovators
  • Radical Innovators

Cite this

Zobel, A-K., Lokshin, B., & Hagedoorn, J. (2016). Formal and informal appropriation mechanisms: the role of openness and innovativeness. Maastricht University, Graduate School of Business and Economics. GSBE Research Memoranda, No. 040 https://doi.org/10.26481/umagsb.2016040