Feasibility of a Portable Electronic Nose for Detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Sudan

Nazar Mohamed, Rens van de Goor, Mariam El-Sheikh, Osman Elrayah, Tarig Osman, Elisabeth Sivy Nginamau, Anne Christine Johannessen, Ahmed Suleiman, Daniela Elena Costea*, Kenneth W. Kross*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing at an alarming rate particularly in low-income countries. This urges for research into noninvasive, user-friendly diagnostic tools that can be used in limited-resource settings. This study aims to test and validate the feasibility of e-nose technology for detecting OSCC in the limited-resource settings of the Sudanese population. Methods: Two e-nose devices (Aeonose (TM), eNose Company, Zutphen, The Netherlands) were used to collect breath samples from OSCC (n = 49) and control (n = 35) patients. Patients were divided into a training group for building an artificial neural network (ANN) model and a blinded control group for model validation. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used for the analysis of baseline characteristics and regression. Aethena proprietary software was used for data analysis using artificial neural networks based on patterns of volatile organic compounds. Results: A diagnostic accuracy of 81% was observed, with 88% sensitivity and 71% specificity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that e-nose is an efficient tool for OSCC detection in limited-resource settings, where it offers a valuable cost-effective strategy to tackle the burden posed by OSCC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number534
Number of pages11
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • electronic nose
  • cancer
  • oral
  • diagnosis
  • screening
  • toombak

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