Fat intake and energy-balance effects

M.S. Westerterp-Plantenga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

Westerterp-Plantenga MS.

Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. m.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl

This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and fullness were increased. In conclusion, we also determined bright sports with respect to fat intake.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)579-585
JournalPhysiology & Behavior
Volume83
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2004

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