AIMS: Reactive dicarbonyl compounds, such as methylglyoxal (MGO), rise during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), particularly in (pre)diabetes. Fasting MGO levels are associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Yet, whether fasting or post-OGTT plasma MGO levels are associated with vascular disease in people with (pre)diabetes is unknown.
METHODS: Subjects with normal glucose metabolism (n=1796; age: 57.9±8.2 years; 43.3% men), prediabetes (n=478; age: 61.6±7.6 years; 54.0% men) and T2DM (n=669; age: 63.0±7.5 years; 67.0% men) from the Maastricht Study underwent OGTTs. Plasma MGO levels were measured at baseline and 2h after OGTT by mass spectrometry. Prior CVD was established via questionnaire. CKD was reflected by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria; retinopathy was assessed using retinal photographs. Data were analyzed using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, HbA1c, BMI and medication use. Odd ratios (ORs) were expressed per standard deviation of LN-transformed MGO.
RESULTS: Fasting and post-OGTT MGO levels were associated with higher ORs for albuminuria ≥30mg/24h [fasting: 1.12 (95% CI: 0.97-1.29); post-OGTT: 1.19 (1.01-1.41)], eGFR<60mL/min/1.73 m2 [fasting: 1.58 (95% CI: 1.38-1.82), post-OGTT: 1.57 (1.34-1.83)] and retinopathy [fasting: 1.59 (95% CI: 1.01-2.53), post-OGTT: 1.38 (0.77-2.48)]. No associations with prior CVD were found.
CONCLUSION: Fasting and post-OGTT MGO levels were associated with microvascular disease, but not prior CVD. Thus, therapeutic strategies directed at lowering MGO levels may prevent microvascular disease.
- Cardiovascular disease
- Chronic kidney disease
- INCIDENT CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE
- ADVANCED GLYCATION ENDPRODUCTS
- ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY
- ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION
- DICARBONYL STRESS