INTRODUCTION: In free flaps, 5%-10% of complications are related to failure of sutured vascular anastomoses. Adhesive-based microvascular anastomoses are potential alternatives but are associated with failure rates of 70% in research studies. VIVO is a new adhesive with slow biodegradation within 6 months that has shown a 100% patency rate in research studies over 2 h observation time but long-term patency has not been evaluated. The authors hypothesize that VIVO will enable a reliable microvascular procedure comparable to sutured anastomoses over a 28-day period.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The right common carotid artery of 60 male Sprague Dawley rats, ~450 g, were used for microvascular end-to-end anastomosis. VIVO was applied with reduced sutures with a temporary catheter in one group and in the other with a custom-shaped memory stent. Anastomoses with eight interrupted sutures served as control. All groups were n = 20. Anastomosis time and bleeding were recorded for each procedure. Doppler flowmetry was performed 20 min, 1, 10, and 28 days postoperatively. Postmortem toluidine staining was used for semi-quantitative analysis of stenosis, thrombosis, necrosis, and aneurysm formation by histologic evaluation.
RESULTS: No occlusion was detected 20 min and 1 day postoperative, and after 28 days of observation in all anastomoses. The anastomosis time of the VIVO with catheter group was about 32% significantly faster than the VIVO with stent group. In the VIVO group with stent, the bleeding time was ~80% shorter than in the control group with 2.1 ± 0.3 and VIVO with catheter 2.0 ± 0.5 (p ≤ .001 each). Minor and nonsignificant stent-associated thrombus formation and stent-typical intraluminal stenosis were detected exclusively in the VIVO with stent group.
CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of a rat study, the use of VIVO in anastomosis showed promising results. VIVO with catheter was found to be advantageous.
- FIBRIN GLUE
- FREE-FLAP RECONSTRUCTIONS
- HISTOACRYL GLUE
- MEDICAL ADHESIVE
- MICROVASCULAR ANASTOMOSIS
- NECK REGION