This special article summarizes the design and certification process of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology (EACTA) Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia (CTVA) Fellowship Program. The CTVA fellowship training includes a two-year curriculum at an EACTA-accredited educational facility. Before fellows are accepted into the program, they must meet a number of requirements, including evidence of a valid license to practice medicine, a specialist degree examination in anesthesiology, and appropriate language skills as required in the host centers. The CVTA Fellowship Program has 2 sequential and complementary levels of training-both with a modular structure that allows for individual planning and also takes into account the differing national healthcare needs and requirements of the 36 countries represented in EACTA. The basic training period focuses on the anesthetic management of patients undergoing cardiac, thoracic, and vascular surgery and related procedures. The advanced training period is intended to deepen and to extend the clinical and nontechnical skills that fellows have acquired during the basic training. The goal of the EACTA fellowship is to produce highly trained and competent perioperative physicians who are able to care for patients undergoing cardiac, thoracic, and vascular anesthesia.