Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins and peptides have recently gained much attention, as they are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and eventually also play a role in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this review, we provide an overview of post-translational protein modifications such as carbamylation, glycation and oxidation, starting with their definitions, mechanisms and clinical relevance in the setting of CKD and cardiovascular disease. The methods currently used for the identification and, in particular, quantification of PTMs are described and potential treatment options in the context of PTMs are reviewed. We foresee that advancements in mass spectrometry-based methods leading to the identification of novel disease markers and/or pathophysiologically relevant factors will certainly boost the clinical utility in sample analyses. ? The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
- cardiovascular disease
- chronic kidney disease
- post-translational modification