Efficient scatter distribution estimation and correction in CBCT using concurrent Monte Carlo fitting

G. J. Bootsma*, F. Verhaegen, D. A. Jaffray

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

37 Citations (Web of Science)


Purpose: X-ray scatter is a significant impediment to image quality improvements in cone-beam CT (CBCT). The authors present and demonstrate a novel scatter correction algorithm using a scatter estimation method that simultaneously combines multiple Monte Carlo (MC) CBCT simulations through the use of a concurrently evaluated fitting function, referred to as concurrent MC fitting (CMCF). Methods: The CMCF method uses concurrently run MC CBCT scatter projection simulations that are a subset of the projection angles used in the projection set, P, to be corrected. The scattered photons reaching the detector in each MC simulation are simultaneously aggregated by an algorithm which computes the scatter detector response, S-MC. S-MC is fit to a function, S-F, and if the fit of S-F is within a specified goodness of fit (GOF), the simulations are terminated. The fit, S-F, is then used to interpolate the scatter distribution over all pixel locations for every projection angle in the set P. The CMCF algorithm was tested using a frequency limited sum of sines and cosines as the fitting function on both simulated and measured data. The simulated data consisted of an anthropomorphic head and a pelvis phantom created from CT data, simulated with and without the use of a compensator. The measured data were a pelvis scan of a phantom and patient taken on an Elekta Synergy platform. The simulated data were used to evaluate various GOF metrics as well as determine a suitable fitness value. The simulated data were also used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality improvements provided by the CMCF method. A qualitative analysis was performed on the measured data by comparing the CMCF scatter corrected reconstruction to the original uncorrected and corrected by a constant scatter correction reconstruction, as well as a reconstruction created using a set of projections taken with a small cone angle. Results: Pearson's correlation, r, proved to be a suitable GOF metric with strong correlation with the actual error of the scatter fit, S-F. Fitting the scatter distribution to a limited sum of sine and cosine functions using a low-pass filtered fast Fourier transform provided a computationally efficient and accurate fit. The CMCF algorithm reduces the number of photon histories required by over four orders of magnitude. The simulated experiments showed that using a compensator reduced the computational time by a factor between 1.5 and 1.75. The scatter estimates for the simulated and measured data were computed between 35-93 s and 114-122 s, respectively, using 16 Intel Xeon cores (3.0 GHz). The CMCF scatter correction improved the contrast-to-noise ratio by 10%-50% and reduced the reconstruction error to under 3% for the simulated phantoms. Conclusions: The novel CMCF algorithm significantly reduces the computation time required to estimate the scatter distribution by reducing the statistical noise in the MC scatter estimate and limiting the number of projection angles that must be simulated. Using the scatter estimate provided by the CMCF algorithm to correct both simulated and real projection data showed improved reconstruction image quality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-68
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015


  • x-ray scatter
  • cone-beam CT
  • Monte Carlo
  • image quality

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