Effects of ADORA2A gene variation and caffeine on prepulse inhibition: A multi-level risk model of anxiety

Agnieszka Gajewska, Terry D. Blumenthal, Bernward Winter, Martin J. Herrmann, Annette Conzelmann, Andreas Muehlberger, Bodo Warrings, Christian Jacob, Volker Arolt, Andreas Reif, Peter Zwanzger, Paul Pauli, Juergen Deckert, Katharina Domschke*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

The complex pathogenesis of anxiety and panic disorder in particular has been suggested to be influenced by genetic factors such as the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) 1976T>C polymorphism (rs5751876) as well as neuropsychological factors such as early information processing deficits. In 114 healthy individuals (males=57, females=57) controlled for anxiety sensitivity (AS), a multi-level risk model of the development of anxiety was applied: Genetic (ADORA2A 1976T>C variant) and biochemical (300 mg of caffeine citrate vs. placebo) factors were hypothesized to influence early information processing as measured by the prepulse inhibition/facilitation paradigm (stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 60, 120, 240, 480 and 2000ms between prepulses and startle stimuli). A fourfold interaction of genotype, intervention, gender, and SOAs was discerned. Stratification by SOAs revealed that at 120 ms and 240 ms SOAs in the caffeine condition, PPI was impaired in female ADORA2A 1976TT risk genotype carriers as compared to male ADORA2A 1976TT homozygotes, while no significant effects were observed in the ADORA2A 1976CC/CT non-risk genotype or placebo group. Only in high anxiety sensitive probands, a significant intervention effect was discerned with impaired prepulse facilitation (PPF) due to caffeine. The present results point to an impaired ability to selectively process very early information and to gate irrelevant sensory information, respectively, in female ADORA2A 1976TT homozygotes in response to caffeine, providing further evidence for the adenosinergic system to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-121
JournalProgress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Volume40
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jan 2013

Keywords

  • Adenosine receptor 2 A
  • Anxiety sensitivity
  • Caffeine
  • Prepulse inhibition
  • Startle

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