Prediction modelling with radiomics is a rapidly developing research topic that requires access to vast amounts of imaging data. Methods that work on decentralized data are urgently needed, because of concerns about patient privacy. Previously published computed tomography medical image sets with gross tumour volume (GTV) outlines for non-small cell lung cancer have been updated with extended follow-up. In a previous study, these were referred to as Lung1 (n = 421) and Lung2 (n = 221). The Lung1 dataset is made publicly accessible via The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA; https://www.cancerimagingarchive.net). We performed a decentralized multi-centre study to develop a radiomic signature (hereafter “ZS2019”) in one institution and validated the performance in an independent institution, without the need for data exchange and compared this to an analysis where all data was centralized. The performance of ZS2019 for 2-year overall survival validated in distributed radiomics was not statistically different from the centralized validation (AUC 0.61 vs 0.61; p = 0.52). Although slightly different in terms of data and methods, no statistically significant difference in performance was observed between the new signature and previous work (c-index 0.58 vs 0.65; p = 0.37). Our objective was not the development of a new signature with the best performance, but to suggest an approach for distributed radiomics. Therefore, we used a similar method as an earlier study. We foresee that the Lung1 dataset can be further re-used for testing radiomic models and investigating feature reproducibility.
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