Distinct responses of protein turnover regulatory pathways in hypoxia- and semistarvation-induced muscle atrophy.

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Abstract

The balance of muscle protein synthesis and degradation determines skeletal muscle mass. We hypothesized that hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy and alterations in the regulation of muscle protein turnover include a hypoxia-specific component, in addition to the observed effects of reduction in food intake in response to hypoxia. Mice were subjected to normoxic, hypoxic (8% oxygen), or pair-fed conditions for 2, 4, and 21 days. Cell-autonomous effects of hypoxia on skeletal muscle were also assessed in differentiated C2C12 myotubes. Hypoxia induced an initial rapid loss of body and muscle weight, which remained decreased during chronic hypoxia and could only in part be explained by the hypoxia-induced reduction of food intake (semistarvation). Regulatory steps of protein synthesis (unfolded protein response and mammal target of rapamycin signaling) remained active in response to acute and sustained hypoxia but not to semistarvation. Activation of regulatory signals for protein degradation, including increased expression of Murf1, Atrogin-1, Bnip3, and Map1lc3b mRNAs, was observed in response to acute hypoxia and to a lesser extent following semistarvation. Conversely, the sustained elevation of Atrogin-1, Bnip3, and Map1lc3b mRNAs and the increased activity of their upstream transcriptional regulator Forkhead box O1 were specific to chronic hypoxia because they were not observed in response to reduced food intake. In conclusion, altered regulation of protein turnover during hypoxia-induced muscle atrophy resulted from an interaction of semistarvation and a hypoxia-specific component. The finding that food restriction but not hypoxia-induced semistarvation inhibited regulatory steps in protein synthesis suggests a hypoxia-specific impairment of the coordination between protein-synthesis signaling and protein-degradation signaling in skeletal muscle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)L82-L91
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Volume305
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2013

Keywords

  • hypoxia
  • mouse model
  • protein turnover
  • regulation
  • skeletal muscle
  • OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE
  • UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME PATHWAY
  • ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM STRESS
  • FOXO TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS
  • HUMAN SKELETAL-MUSCLE
  • HYPOBARIC HYPOXIA
  • NORMOBARIC HYPOXIA
  • TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL
  • HIGH-ALTITUDE
  • EXPRESSION

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