Diet-induced differences in estimated plasma glucose concentrations in healthy, non-diabetic adults are detected by continuous glucose monitoring-a randomized crossover trial

Eva Fechner*, Cara Op't Eyndt, Theo Mulder, Ronald P. Mensink

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Web of Science)


Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) have been developed for diabetic patients for estimating and controlling plasma glucose changes throughout the day. However, elevated postprandial glucose concentrations may also be detrimental for non-diabetic subjects by increasing the risk of developing vascular complications and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, CGMs may also be valuable in clinical research and we hypothesized that diet-induced differences in estimated plasma glucose concentrations in healthy, non-diabetic adults could be detected by the Abbott FreeStyle Libre Pro CGM. In this single-blind randomized cross-over trial, 23 healthy but overweight or obese men and women therefore consumed two diets differing in glycemic load in randomized order for three consecutive days. Based on the CGM measurements, two-hour total areas under the curve (tAUCs) after breakfast, lunch and dinner were calculated. Additionally, postprandial glucose was measured with the CGM and in plasma during a rice meal challenge. The average tAUC was significantly lower on the low GL diet compared to the high GL diet (P <.0001). The same conclusions were drawn when tAUCs for breakfast (P <.0001), lunch (P <.0001) and dinner (P <.0001) were analyzed separately. During the rice meal challenge, significantly higher glucose responses were observed after the low GL period, as monitored by both the CGM device (P <.0001) and the plasma glucose analysis (P <.0001). The difference between the means of both methods was 0.11 mmol/L (1.78%) with a higher glucose value in plasma. The absolute mean difference was 0.66 mmol/L (10.5%). We conclude that the CGM detected diet-induced differences in estimated plasma glucose concentrations, which supports its use not only in clinical practice, but also for research purposes during dietary interventions in non-diabetic participants. (C)2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-43
Number of pages8
JournalNutrition Research
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2020


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