Diagnostic approach of myocarditis: strike the golden mean

M. R. Hazebroek, K. Everaerts, S. Heymans*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Web of Science)


Myocarditis is a challenging diagnosis due to the extreme diversity of clinical manifestations. The actual incidence of myocarditis is also difficult to determine as endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), the diagnostic gold standard, is used infrequently. Nevertheless, in up to 30 % of patients with biopsy-proven myocarditis, progression to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can occur and is associated with a poor prognosis. Recent position statements of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the American Heart Association vary widely with regard to indications for performing an EMB in these patients. This makes decision-making, in particular for general practitioners (GPs) and regional hospitals, difficult and unclear. Therefore, we will present a short summary of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases statement and our suggestions for GPs and regional hospitals for the diagnostic approach in patients with suspected myocarditis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-84
JournalNetherlands Heart Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014


  • Myocarditis
  • Endomyocardial biopsy
  • Diagnosis

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