Development and psychometric evaluation of an instrument to assess Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Family Caregivers at Preventing Pressure Injuries (KAP-PI) in Indonesian community-dwelling older adults

Sheizi Prista Sari*, Irma H J Everink, Christa Lohrmann, Yufitriana Amir, Eka Afrima Sari, Ruud J G Halfens, Dimitri Beeckman, Jos M G A Schols

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pressure injuries among community-dwelling older adults in countries worldwide is still a serious problem. In Indonesia, older adults mostly rely on family members for (medical) care. Therefore, involving family members in the prevention and treatment of pressure injuries (PIs) could potentially decrease its prevalence rates. However, family members are usually not trained for such tasks. Hence, it is essential to first get more insight into the current state of affairs on family members' knowledge, attitude and actual practice of preventing PIs. Due to the lack of an existing instrument to measure knowledge, attitude and practice of family caregivers in preventing PIs, this study focuses on the development and evaluation of psychometric properties of such an instrument.

METHODS: Three phases of instrument development and evaluation were used, including item generation, instrument construction and psychometric testing of the instrument. A total of 372 family caregivers of community-dwelling older adults who randomly selected participated in this study. Principal factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha were performed to evaluate factor structure and internal consistency of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Family Caregivers at Preventing Pressure Injuries (KAP-PI) instrument.

RESULTS: The final version of the KAP-PI-instrument consists of a 12-item knowledge domain, a 9-item attitude domain, and a 12-item practice domain with Cronbach's Alpha values of 0.83, 0.93 and 0.89, respectively. The instrument appeared to be both reliable and valid.

CONCLUSION: The KAP-PI instrument can be used in family nursing or community nursing practice, education, and research to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of pressure injury prevention of family caregivers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number222
Number of pages24
JournalBMC Nursing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2022


  • Knowledge
  • Attitude
  • Practice
  • Pressure injury
  • Pressure ulcer
  • Prevention
  • Family caregivers
  • Psychometric evaluation
  • Community nurses

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