The design of healthcare facilities is a complex and dynamic process, which involves many stakeholders each with their own set of needs. In the context of healthcare facilities, this complexity exists at the intersection of technology and society because the very design of these buildings forces us to consider the technology–human interface directly in terms of living-space, ethics and social priorities. In order to grasp this complexity, current healthcare design models need mechanisms to help prioritize the needs of the stakeholders. Assistance in this process can be derived by incorporating elements of technology philosophy into existing design models. In this article, we develop and examine the inclusive and integrated health facilities design model (in2health design model) and its foundations. This model brings together three existing approaches: (i) the international classification of functioning, disability and health, (ii) the model of integrated building design, and (iii) the ontology by dooyeweerd. The model can be used to analyze the needs of the various stakeholders, in relationship to the required performances of a building as delivered by various building systems. The applicability of the in2health design model is illustrated by two case studies concerning (i) the evaluation of the indoor environment for older people with dementia and (ii) the design process of the redevelopment of an existing hospital for psychiatric patients.
van Hoof, J., & Verkerk, M. J. (2013). Developing an integrated design model incorporating technology philosophy for the design of healthcare environments. Technology in Society, 35(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2012.11.002