Cytokine production induced by low-molecular-weight chemicals as a function of the stimulation index in a modified local lymph node assay: an approach to discriminate contact sensitizers from respiratory sensitizers

F.M.M. van Och, H. van Loveren, W.H. de Jong, R.J. Vandebriel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Cytokine production induced by low-molecular-weight chemicals as a function of the stimulation index in a modified local lymph node assay: an approach to discriminate contact sensitizers from respiratory sensitizers.

Van Och FM, Van Loveren H, De Jong WH, Vandebriel RJ.

Laboratory for Pathology and Immunobiology, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P. O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

In general, contact sensitizers have been shown to selectively induce Th1 immune responses, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production, whereas Th2 responses, such as interleukin (IL)-4 production, were seen after exposure to respiratory allergens. However, these features may be dependent on the dose of the particular allergen. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the distinction between contact sensitizers and respiratory allergens, by establishing dose-dependent cytokine profiles. The contact allergens 2,4- dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), and oxazolone (OXA, 4-ethoxymethylene 2-phenyloxazol-5-one) as well as the respiratory allergens fluorescein 5-isothiocyanate, phthalic anhydride, toluene diisocyanate, and trimellitic anhydride were tested. For a range of concentrations, both proliferative responses and cytokine production were established. Estimated concentrations were derived at several stimulation indices (SIs). From the estimated concentrations, IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10 production as a function of stimulation indices were plotted. All four respiratory allergens showed significantly higher IL-4 and IL-10 production patterns compared to the contact allergens. Positive identification of DNCB, HCA, and OXA as contact allergens on the basis of IFN-gamma production was observed only at very high stimulation indices (SI >or= 35) for DNCB and OXA and at low SIs (SI <or= 7) for HCA. We propose that, by direct linkage of proliferation and cytokine production in a dose-response manner, distinguishing contact allergens from respiratory allergens may be improved compared to present approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-56
Number of pages11
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume184
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002

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