Combination of Radiological and Clinical Baseline Data for Outcome Prediction of Patients With an Acute Ischemic Stroke

Lucas A Ramos*, Hendrikus van Os, Adam Hilbert, Silvia D Olabarriaga, Aad van der Lugt, Yvo B W E M Roos, Wim H van Zwam, Marianne A A van Walderveen, Marielle Ernst, Aeiko H Zwinderman, Gustav J Strijkers, Charles B L M Majoie, Marieke J H Wermer, Henk A Marquering

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Accurate prediction of clinical outcome is of utmost importance for choices regarding the endovascular treatment (EVT) of acute stroke. Recent studies on the prediction modeling for stroke focused mostly on clinical characteristics and radiological scores available at baseline. Radiological images are composed of millions of voxels, and a lot of information can be lost when representing this information by a single value. Therefore, in this study we aimed at developing prediction models that take into account the whole imaging data combined with clinical data available at baseline.

Methods: We included 3,279 patients from the MR CLEAN Registry; a prospective, observational, multicenter registry of patients with ischemic stroke treated with EVT. We developed two approaches to combine the imaging data with the clinical data. The first approach was based on radiomics features, extracted from 70 atlas regions combined with the clinical data to train machine learning models. For the second approach, we trained 3D deep learning models using the whole images and the clinical data. Models trained with the clinical data only were compared with models trained with the combination of clinical and image data. Finally, we explored feature importance plots for the best models and identified many known variables and image features/brain regions that were relevant in the model decision process.

Results: From 3,279 patients included, 1,241 (37%) patients had a good functional outcome [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤ 2] and 1,954 (60%) patients had good reperfusion [modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (eTICI) ≥ 2b]. There was no significant improvement by combining the image data to the clinical data for mRS prediction [mean area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.81 vs. 0.80] above using the clinical data only, regardless of the approach used. Regarding predicting reperfusion, there was a significant improvement when image and clinical features were combined (mean AUC of 0.54 vs. 0.61), with the highest AUC obtained by the deep learning approach.

Conclusions: The combination of radiomics and deep learning image features with clinical data significantly improved the prediction of good reperfusion. The visualization of prediction feature importance showed both known and novel clinical and imaging features with predictive values.

Original languageEnglish
Article number809343
Number of pages18
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • data combination
  • deep learning
  • ischemia stroke
  • outcome prediction
  • radiomics

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