There are various clinical and non-clinical studies that have indicated that phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment can improve cognitive functions in humans and other animals. However, treatment with PS derived from bovine cortex is not desirable because of possible transfer of infectious diseases. The present study investigated the cognition-enhancing properties of different types of PS in rats. Seventeen-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were treated daily with a dose of 15 mg/kg of PS derived from bovine cortex (BC-PS), soybean (S-PS), egg (E-PS), or vehicle (n = 9 for each group). The effects of treatment were evaluated in three different behavioral tests. An open field test was conducted to examine the effects of treatment on psychomotor behavior. Two other tests (Morris water escape task and two-way active avoidance) assessed treatment effects on the cognitive performance of rats. Treatment with the different forms of PS did not affect the psychomotor or spatial discrimination performance of the rats. In accordance with previous studies, the cognition-enhancing effects of BC-PS were observed in the two-way active avoidance task. It appeared that the cognition-enhancing effects of S-PS were not different from those of BC-PS. The performance of rats treated with E-PS did not deviate from that of vehicle-treated rats. On the basis of the present study, it was concluded that S-PS, but not E-PS, may have comparable effects on cognition when compared with BC-PS.