This study examined postprandial plasma insulin and glucose responses after co-ingestion of an insulinotropic protein (Pro) hydrolysate with and without additional free leucine with a single bolus of carbohydrate (Cho). Male patients with long-standing Type 2 diabetes (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10) participated in 3 trials in which plasma glucose, insulin, and amino acid responses were determined after the ingestion of beverages of different composition (Cho: 0.7 g/kg carbohydrate, Cho+Pro: 0.7 g/kg carbohydrate with 0.3 g/kg protein hydrolysate, or Cho+Pro+Leu: 0.7 g/kg carbohydrate, 0.3 g/kg protein hydrolysate and 0.1 g/kg free leucine). Plasma insulin responses [expressed as area under the curve (AUC)] were 141 and 204% greater in patients with Type 2 diabetes and 66 and 221% greater in the controls in the Cho+Pro and Cho+Pro+Leu trials, respectively, compared with those in the Cho trial (P < 0.05). The concomitant plasma glucose responses were 15 and 12% lower in the patients with Type 2 diabetes and 92 and 97% lower in the control group in the Cho+Pro and Cho+Pro+Leu trials, respectively, compared with those in the Cho trial (P < 0.05). Plasma leucine concentrations correlated with the insulin response in all subjects (r = 0.43, P < 0.001). We conclude that co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate with or without additional free leucine strongly augments the insulin response after ingestion of a single bolus of carbohydrate, thereby significantly reducing postprandial blood glucose excursions in patients with long-standing Type 2 diabetes. AD - School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
Manders, R. J., Koopman, R., Sluijsmans, W. E. M., van den Berg, R., Verbeek, K., Saris, W. H., Wagenmakers, A. J., & van Loon, L. J. (2006). Co-Ingestion of a Protein Hydrolysate with or without Additional Leucine Effectively Reduces Postprandial Blood Glucose Excursions in Type 2 Diabetic Men. Journal of Nutrition, 136(5), 1294-1299. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.5.1294