This study examined postprandial plasma insulin and glucose responses after co-ingestion of an insulinotropic protein (Pro) hydrolysate with and without additional free leucine with a single bolus of carbohydrate (Cho). Male patients with long-standing Type 2 diabetes (n = 10) and healthy controls (n = 10) participated in 3 trials in which plasma glucose, insulin, and amino acid responses were determined after the ingestion of beverages of different composition (Cho: 0.7 g/kg carbohydrate, Cho+Pro: 0.7 g/kg carbohydrate with 0.3 g/kg protein hydrolysate, or Cho+Pro+Leu: 0.7 g/kg carbohydrate, 0.3 g/kg protein hydrolysate and 0.1 g/kg free leucine). Plasma insulin responses [expressed as area under the curve (AUC)] were 141 and 204% greater in patients with Type 2 diabetes and 66 and 221% greater in the controls in the Cho+Pro and Cho+Pro+Leu trials, respectively, compared with those in the Cho trial (P < 0.05). The concomitant plasma glucose responses were 15 and 12% lower in the patients with Type 2 diabetes and 92 and 97% lower in the control group in the Cho+Pro and Cho+Pro+Leu trials, respectively, compared with those in the Cho trial (P < 0.05). Plasma leucine concentrations correlated with the insulin response in all subjects (r = 0.43, P < 0.001). We conclude that co-ingestion of a protein hydrolysate with or without additional free leucine strongly augments the insulin response after ingestion of a single bolus of carbohydrate, thereby significantly reducing postprandial blood glucose excursions in patients with long-standing Type 2 diabetes. AD - School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.