Cardiovascular risk in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients in India

A G Unnikrishnan, R K Sahay, Uday Phadke, S K Sharma, Parag Shah, Rishi Shukla, Vijay Viswanathan, S K Wangnoo, Santosh Singhal, Mathew John, Ajay Kumar, Mala Dharmalingam, Subodh Jain, Shehla Shaikh, Willem J Verberk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) worldwide continues to increase, in particular in India. Early T2DM diagnosis followed by appropriate management will result in more cardiovascular event free life years. However, knowledge of the cardiovascular profile of newly diagnosed T2DM patients is still limited. The aim of this study was to understand the extent of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk of newly diagnosed T2DM patients in India. Methods A cross sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate clinical laboratory and socio-demographic parameters of 5,080 newly diagnosed T2DM patients (48.3 ± 12.8 years of age; 36.7% female). In addition, we determined their cardiovascular risk according to the guidelines of the Lipid Association of India (LAI) and the criteria of the QRISK3 score. Results Of the newly T2DM diagnosed patients in India 2,007(39.5%) were classified as “High risk” and 3,073 (60.5%) were classified as “Very high risk” based on LAI criteria. On average, patients had 1.7 ± 0.9 major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk factors. Low HDL-C value was the most frequent major risk (2,823; 55.6%) followed by high age (2,502; 49.3%), hypertension (2,141; 42.1%), smoking/tobacco use (1,078; 21.2%) and chronic kidney disease stage 3b or higher (568; 11.2%). In addition, 4,192 (82.5%) patients appeared to have at least one cholesterol abnormality and, if the latest LAI recommendations are applied, 96.5% (4,902) presented with lipid values above recommended targets. Based on the QRISK3 calculation Indian diabetes patients had an average CVD risk of 15.3 ± 12.3%, (12.2 ± 10.1 vs. 17.1 ± 13.5 [p<0.001] for females and males, respectively). Conclusions Newly diagnosed Indian T2DM patients are at high ASCVD risk. Our data therefore support the notion that further extension of nationwide ASCVD risk identification programs and prevention strategies to reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases are warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0263619
Number of pages12
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 31 Mar 2022




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