Cardiac Troponin T: The Impact of Posttranslational Modifications on Analytical Immunoreactivity in Blood up to the Excretion in Urine

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Abstract

Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is a sensitive and specific biomarker for detecting cardiac muscle injury. Its concentration in blood can be significantly elevated outside the normal reference range under several pathophysiological conditions. The classical analytical method in routine clinical analysis to detect cTnT in serum or plasma is a single commercial immunoassay, which is designed to quantify the intact cTnT molecule. The targeted epitopes are located in the central region of the cTnT molecule. However, in blood cTnT exists in different biomolecular complexes and proteoforms: bound (to cardiac troponin subunits or to immunoglobulins) or unbound (as intact protein or as proteolytic proteoforms). While proteolysis is a principal posttranslational modification (PTM), other confirmed PTMs of the proteoforms include N-terminal initiator methionine removal, N-acetylation, O-phosphorylation, O-(N-acetyl)-glucosaminylation, N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl)lysine modification and citrullination. The immunoassay probably detects several of those cTnT biomolecular complexes and proteoforms, as long as they have the centrally targeted epitopes in common. While analytical cTnT immunoreactivity has been studied predominantly in blood, it can also be detected in urine, although it is unclear in which proteoform cTnT immunoreactivity is present in urine. This review presents an overview of the current knowledge on the pathophysiological lifecycle of cTnT. It provides insight into the impact of PTMs, not only on the analytical immunoreactivity, but also on the excretion of cTnT in urine as one of the waste routes in that lifecycle. Accordingly, and after isolating the proteoforms from urine of patients suffering from proteinuria and acute myocardial infarction, the structures of some possible cTnT proteoforms are reconstructed using mass spectrometry and presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-59
Number of pages19
JournalAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Volume1306
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Humans
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Proteolysis
  • Troponin T/metabolism

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