Biomarkers of Radiotherapy-Induced Immunogenic Cell Death

Rianne D. W. Vaes*, Lizza E. L. Hendriks, Marc Vooijs, Dirk De Ruysscher

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review


Radiation therapy (RT) can induce an immunogenic variant of regulated cell death that can initiate clinically relevant tumor-targeting immune responses. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is accompanied by the exposure and release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), chemokine release, and stimulation of type I interferon (IFN-I) responses. In recent years, intensive research has unraveled major mechanistic aspects of RT-induced ICD and has resulted in the identification of immunogenic factors that are released by irradiated tumor cells. However, so far, only a limited number of studies have searched for potential biomarkers that can be used to predict if irradiated tumor cells undergo ICD that can elicit an effective immunogenic anti-tumor response. In this article, we summarize the available literature on potential biomarkers of RT-induced ICD that have been evaluated in cancer patients. Additionally, we discuss the clinical relevance of these findings and important aspects that should be considered in future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number930
Number of pages16
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • immunogenic cell death
  • radiotherapy
  • biomarkers
  • HMGB1
  • calreticulin
  • Hsp70
  • interferon
  • necroptosis

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