Radiation therapy (RT) can induce an immunogenic variant of regulated cell death that can initiate clinically relevant tumor-targeting immune responses. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is accompanied by the exposure and release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), chemokine release, and stimulation of type I interferon (IFN-I) responses. In recent years, intensive research has unraveled major mechanistic aspects of RT-induced ICD and has resulted in the identification of immunogenic factors that are released by irradiated tumor cells. However, so far, only a limited number of studies have searched for potential biomarkers that can be used to predict if irradiated tumor cells undergo ICD that can elicit an effective immunogenic anti-tumor response. In this article, we summarize the available literature on potential biomarkers of RT-induced ICD that have been evaluated in cancer patients. Additionally, we discuss the clinical relevance of these findings and important aspects that should be considered in future studies.
- immunogenic cell death