Best Reply Search for Multiplayer Games

Maarten P. D. Schadd*, Mark H. M. Winands

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This paper proposes a new algorithm, called best reply search (BRS), for deterministic multiplayer games with perfect information. In BRS, only the opponent with the strongest counter move is allowed to make a move. More turns of the root player can be searched resulting in long-term planning. We test BRS in the games of Chinese Checkers, Focus, and Rolit T. In all games, BRS is superior to the algorithm. We show that BRS also outperforms paranoid in Chinese Checkers and Focus. In Rolit, BRS is on equal footing with paranoid. We conclude that BRS is a promising search method for deterministic multiplayer games with perfect information.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-66
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


  • Multiplayer games
  • best reply search (BRS)
  • Max(n)
  • paranoid
  • Chinese Checkers
  • Focus
  • Rolit


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