Background. Pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure (pre-HD SBP) and peridialytic SBP change have been associated with morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis (HD) patients in previous studies, but the nature of their interaction is not well understood.
Methods. We analyzed pre-HD SBP and peridialytic SBP change (calculated as post-HD SBP minus pre-HD SBP) between January 2001 and December 2012 in HD patients treated in US Fresenius Medical Care facilities. The baseline period was defined as Months 4-6 after HD initiation, and all-cause mortality was noted during follow-up. Only patients who survived baseline and had no missing covariates were included. Censoring events were renal transplantation, modality change or study end. We fitted a Cox proportional hazard model with a bivariate spline functions for the primary predictors (pre-HD SBP and peridialytic SBP change) with adjustment for age, gender, race, diabetes, access-type, relative interdialytic weight gain, body mass index, albumin, equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate and ultrafiltration rate.
Results. A total of 172 199 patients were included. Mean age was 62.1 years, 61.6% were white and 55% were male. During a median follow-up of 25.0 months, 73 529 patients (42.7%) died. We found that a peridialytic SBP rise combined with high pre-HD SBP was associated with higher mortality. In contrast, when concurrent with low pre-HD SBP, a peridialytic SBP rise was associated with better survival.
Conclusion. The association of pre-HD and peridialytic SBP change with mortality is complex. Our findings call for a joint, not isolated, interpretation of pre-HD SBP and peridialytic SBP change.
- chronic hemodialysis
- peridialytic systolic blood pressure
- pre-hemodialysis systolic blood pressure
- INTRADIALYTIC HYPERTENSION
- CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
- PARADOXICAL RISE