Association between selected dietary scores and the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma: A prospective cohort study

Pierre-Antoine Dugue*, Allison M. Hodge, Maree T. Brinkman, Julie K. Bassett, Nitin Shivappa, James R. Hebert, John L. Hopper, Dallas R. English, Roger L. Milne, Graham G. Giles

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Studies investigating the association of food and nutrient consumption with the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) have produced mixed results. We used three common dietary scores, the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) to assess the evidence of an association between diet and the risk of UCC. Over a median follow-up time of 21.3 years, 379 incident UCC cases were diagnosed. Dietary scores were calculated using data from a 121-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. We used Cox models to compute hazard ratios (HR) for the association between dietary scores (per one standard deviation) and UCC risk. In order to reflect overall adherence to a healthy diet, a metascore was constructed by summing the quintiles of each of the three scores. None of the dietary scores was associated with the risk of UCC overall. A healthier diet was found to be inversely associated with the risk of invasive (MDS: HR?=?0.86, 95% CI: 0.74-1.00, metascore: HR?=?0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-0.98), but not superficial disease (heterogeneity between subtypes p?=?0.04 and p?=?0.03, respectively). Results were consistent but weaker for the DII and the AHEI-2010. We found some evidence of effect modification by smoking, in particular for the metascore (Current: HR?=?0.77, 95% CI: 0.58-1.01, Former: HR?=?0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.92, Never: HR?=?1.01, 95% CI: 0.81-1.26, p for heterogeneity?=?0.05). A healthy diet may be protective against the risk of invasive, but not superficial, UCC. Promoting healthy dietary habits may help lower the risk of invasive UCC, especially for current and former smokers.? 2016 UICC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1251-1260
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Volume139
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2016

Keywords

  • dietary score
  • urothelial cell
  • bladder cancer
  • Mediterranean Diet Score
  • Dietary Inflammatory Index
  • Alternate Healthy Eating Index

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