Assessment of cost-effective changes to the current and potential provision of smoking cessation services: an analysis based on the EQUIPTMOD

Charlotte Anraad, Kei-Long Cheung, Mickael Hiligsmann, Kathryn Coyle, Doug Coyle, Lesley Owen, Robert West, Hein de Vries, Silvia M. Evers, Subhash Pokhrel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

5 Citations (Web of Science)


Background and aims Increasing the reach of smoking cessation services and/or including new but effective medications to the current provision may provide significant health and economic benefits; the scale of such benefits is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness from a health-care perspective of viable national level changes in smoking cessation provision in the Netherlands and England. Methods AMarkov-based state transition model [European study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection fromTobacco model (EQUIPTMOD)] was used to estimate costs and benefits [expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALY)] of changing the current provision of smoking cessation programmes in theNetherlands and England. The changes included: (a) increasing the reach of top-level services to increase potential quitters (e. g. brief physician advice); (b) increasing the reach of behavioural support (group-based therapy and SMS text-messaging support) to increase the success rates; (c) including a new but effective medication (cytisine); and (d) all changes implemented together (combined change). The costs and QALYs generated by those changes over 2, 5, 10 years and a life-time were compared with that of the current practice in each country. Results were expressed as incremental net benefit (INB) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). A sequential analysis froma life-time perspective was conducted to identify the optimal change. Results The combined change was dominant (cost-saving) over all alternative changes and over the current practice, in both countries. The combined change would generate an incremental net benefit of (sic)11.47 (2 years) to _ 56.16 (life-time) per smoker in the Netherlands and (sic) 9.96 (2 years) to (sic) 60.72 (life-time) per smoker in England. The current practice was dominated by all alternative changes. Conclusion Current provision of smoking cessation services in the Netherlands and England can benefit economically from the inclusion of cytisine and increasing the reach of brief physician advice, text-messaging support and group-based therapy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)96-105
Number of pages10
Issue numberS1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Cost-effectiveness
  • cytisine
  • economic evaluation
  • public health
  • return on investment
  • smoking cessation

Cite this