Application of single- and dual-energy CT brain tissue segmentation to PET monitoring of proton therapy

Bianca Berndt, Guillaume Landry, Florian Schwarz, Thomas Tessonnier, Florian Kamp, George Dedes, Christian Thieke, Matthias Wrl, Christopher Kurz, Ute Ganswindt, Frank Verhaegen, Juergen Debus, Claus Belka, Wieland Sommer, Maximilian Reiser, Julia Bauer, Katia Parodi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of single and dual energy computed tomography (SECT, DECT) to estimate tissue composition and density for usage in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of irradiation induced beta(+) activity distributions. This was done to assess the impact on positron emission tomography (PET) range verification in proton therapy.

A DECT-based brain tissue segmentation method was developed for white matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The elemental composition of reference tissues was assigned to closest CT numbers in DECT space (DECTdist). The method was also applied to SECT data (SECTdist). In a validation experiment, the proton irradiation induced PET activity of three brain equivalent solutions (BES) was compared to simulations based on different tissue segmentations. Five patients scanned with a dual source DECT scanner were analyzed to compare the different segmentation methods.

A single magnetic resonance (MR) scan was used for comparison with an established segmentation toolkit. Additionally, one patient with SECT and post-treatment PET scans was investigated.

For BES, DECTdist and SECTdist reduced differences to the reference simulation by up to 62% when compared to the conventional stoichiometric segmentation (SECTSchneider). In comparison to MR brain segmentation, Dice similarity coefficients for WM, GM and CSF were 0.61, 0.67 and 0.66 for DECTdist and 0.54, 0.41 and 0.66 for SECTdist. MC simulations of PET treatment verification in patients showed important differences between DECTdist/SECTdist and SECT(Schneide)r for patients with large CSF areas within the treatment field but not in WM and GM. Differences could be misinterpreted as PET derived range shifts of up to 4 mm. DECTdist and SECTdist yielded comparable activity distributions, and comparison of SECTdist to a measured patient PET scan showed improved agreement when compared to SECTSchneider.

The agreement between predicted and measured PET activity distributions was improved by employing a brain specific segmentation applicable to both DECT and SECT data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2427-2448
Number of pages22
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Volume62
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Feb 2017

Keywords

  • dual energy CT
  • PET
  • range verification
  • in vivo
  • brain segmentation
  • MRI
  • tissue substitutes
  • IN-BEAM PET
  • POSITRON-EMISSION-TOMOGRAPHY
  • CARLO DOSE CALCULATIONS
  • PROMPT GAMMA EMISSION
  • MONTE-CARLO
  • COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY
  • RANGE VERIFICATION
  • METALLIC IMPLANTS
  • VIVO VERIFICATION
  • PARTICLE THERAPY

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