Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk by estrogen receptor status: in a pooled analysis of 20 studies

Seungyoun Jung*, Molin Wang, Kristin Anderson, Laura Baglietto, Leif Bergkvist, Leslie Bernstein, Piet A. van den Brandt, Louise Brinton, Julie E. Buring, A. Heather Eliassen, Roni Falk, Susan M. Gapstur, Graham G. Giles, Gary Goodman, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Pamela L. Horn-Ross, Manami Inoue, Laurence N. Kolonel, Vittorio Krogh, Marie LofPaige Maas, Anthony B. Miller, Marian L. Neuhouser, Yikyung Park, Kim Robien, Thomas E. Rohan, Stephanie Scarmo, Leo J. Schouten, Sabina Sieri, Victoria L. Stevens, Schoichiro Tsugane, Kala Visvanathan, Lynne R. Wilkens, Alicja Wolk, Elisabete Weiderpass, Walter C. Willett, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Shumin M. Zhang, Xuehong Zhang, Regina G. Ziegler, Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background: Breast cancer aetiology may differ by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Associations of alcohol and folate intakes with risk of breast cancer defined by ER status were examined in pooled analyses of the primary data from 20 cohorts. Methods: During a maximum of 6-18 years of follow-up of 1 089 273 women, 21 624 ER+ and 5113 ER- breast cancers were identified. Study-specific multivariable relative risks (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and then combined using a random-effects model. Results: Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of ER+ and ER- breast cancer. The pooled multivariable RRs (95% confidence intervals) comparing >= 30 g/d with 0 g/day of alcohol consumption were 1.35 (1.23-1.48) for ER+ and 1.28 (1.10-1.49) for ER+ breast cancer (P-trend = 0.26). Dietary (from foods only) and total folate intakes were not associated with risk of overall, ER+ and ER- breast cancer; pooled multivariable RRs ranged from 0.98 to 1.02 comparing extreme quintiles. Following-up US studies through only the period before mandatory folic acid fortification did not change the results. The alcohol and folate associations did not vary by tumour subtypes defined by progesterone receptor status. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption was positively associated with risk of both ER+ and ER- breast cancer, even among women with high folate intake. Folate intake was not associated with breast cancer risk.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)916-928
JournalInternational Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016


  • Alcohol
  • folate
  • breast cancer
  • estrogen receptor
  • progesterone receptor
  • pooled analyses
  • epidemiology
  • cohort study

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