Addressing the intentional destruction of the environment during warfare under the Rome statute of the international criminal court

S. Freeland

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisExternal prepared

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Acts perpetrated during the course of warfare have, through the ages, led to significant environmental destruction. Until recently, such acts were generally regarded as an unfortunate but unavoidable element of armed conflict. The existing international rules have largely been ineffective and inappropriate. However, as the significance of the environment has come to be more widely understood and recognised, this is no longer acceptable, particularly given the ongoing development of weapons capable of widespread and significant damage. This dissertation therefore examines the current international legal regime relevant to the intentional destruction of the environment during warfare, and argues that such acts should, in appropriate circumstances, be recognised as an international crime and should be subject to more effective rules giving rise to international criminal responsibility. It also suggests a framework within the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court as to how this might be achieved.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Maastricht University
  • Klip, André, Supervisor
  • Roef, David, Co-Supervisor
Award date10 Jun 2015
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • warfare
  • international legal rules
  • crimes against the environment

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