Activities and Participation in the First 6 Months After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents

M. Irene Renaud, Ingrid G L van de Port, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Korné Jellema, Suzanne A M Lambregts, Caroline M. van Heugten*

*Corresponding author for this work

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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural course of activities and participation of children up to 6 months after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cohort study with complete data sets of 231 children diagnosed with mTBI and their caregivers.

MAIN MEASURES: Activities and participation assessed with the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP) and the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) measured at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months post-mTBI. Because of a ceiling effect, the primary outcome measure (CASP) was divided into deviant (not maximum score) or full functioning.

RESULTS: Friedman's, Cochran's Q, and McNemar's tests (CASP) and repeated-measures analyses of variance (CAPE) showed significant increases in activities and participation between 2 weeks and 3 and 6 months after mTBI. Based on the parents' perspective, 67% of the children returned to full functioning at 6 months postinjury, with only 38% of the children describing themselves as functioning at their premorbid level.

DISCUSSION: Findings indicate that most children return to maximum level of activities and participation over time after mTBI. In a substantial number of children, however, the level of activities and participation at 6 months postinjury is evaluated as lower than that of peers. The importance of investigating predictors for child and caregiver perspectives is emphasized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E501-E512
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Issue number6
Early online date27 May 2020
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • activities and participation
  • children
  • domains
  • mild traumatic brain injury
  • outcome
  • settings
  • LIFE

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