Advances in gene transfer techniques have provided long-term, safe and stable transduction of retinal cells following subretinal injection with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. In this study we investigated whether subretinal injection of AAV2-murine IL-27p28 vector was effective in inhibiting experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) induced in B10RIII mice. Methodology/Principal Findings: An AAV2 vector encoding the murine IL-27p28 gene (rAAV2-CMV-mIL-27p28) was prepared and subretinally injected into B10RIII mice (4.35x10(8) vector genome (v. g.)). AAV2 vector mediating green fluorescent protein (rAAV2-CMV-GFP) served as a control (5x10(8) v.g.). The concentration of mIL-27p28 in homogenized eyes and serum was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after subretinal injection. Human IRBP161-180 peptide and Complete Freund's Adjuvant were injected into mice receiving either the rAAV2-CMV-mIL-27p28 or rAAV2-CMV-GFP vector. EAU was evaluated clinically and pathologically. The level of IL-17 and IL-10 in homogenized eyes was measured on day 12 and day 21 following immunization. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and IRBP161-180-specific proliferation of lymphocytes from the spleen and lymph nodes were assayed to examine the influence of the subretinal delivery of rAAV2-CMV-mIL-27p28 on the systemic immune response. IL-27p28 was detectable by ELISA within the eyes from two weeks following subretinal injection of the rAAV2-CMV-mIL-27p28 vector and showed a sustained high expression from day 14 to 9 months with a highest expression at 5 months. Subretinal injection of the vector significantly attenuated the severity of EAU disease clinically and pathologically in association with a significantly decreased IL-17 expression and an increased IL-10 expression. The IL-27p28 vector did not affect the systemic immune response, as determined by DTH and IRBP161-180-specific lymphocyte proliferation. Conclusions/Significance: A high and stable expression of IL-27p28 was observed for at least 9 months following subretinal delivery of rAAV2-CMV-mIL-27p28. The amelioration of EAU disease severity was associated with a decreased IL-17 expression and an increased IL-10 expression.