Our analysis first briefly outlines the growth of Social Europe, from its origins focused on what we call Social Europe for Workers to a much broader focus. It shows how increased attention to Social Europe in the Lisbon Treaty, including in the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, was not matched by the EUﾒs actions, which instead were characterized by a series of regressive moves across a range of EU institutions. It then considers the genesis, status and debate around the European Pillar of Social Rights, showing that it has been accompanied by renewed EU activity. At the same time, we suggest that the Pillar is insufficient to provide a tangible human face for Social Europe in the new context of migration and the legacies of the economic crisis. We argue that binding EU commitments to minimum pay and income and to addressing inequalities are now needed. We conclude by briefly surveying the options for developing Social Europe over the next five years: in the use of competences; in macro-economic governance; in EU spending; and going outside the Treaties to overcome blockages and limits.
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