@inbook{368966e18b6345bb96b070ce9d927318,

title = "A Solution to the GHI Problem for Best-First Search",

abstract = "In a search graph a node's value may be dependent on the path leading to it. Different paths may lead to different values. Hence, it is difficult to determine the value of any node unambiguously. The problem is known as the graph-history-interaction (GHI) problem. This paper provides a solution for best-first search. First, we give a precise formulation of the problem. Then, for best-first search and for other searches, we review earlier proposals to overcome the problem. Next, our solution is given in detail. Here we introduce the notion of twin nodes, enabling a distinction of nodes according to their history. The implementation, called BTA (Base-Twin Algorithm), is performed for pn search, a best-first search algorithm. It is generally applicable to other best-first search algorithms. Experimental results in the field of computer chess confirm the claim that the GHI problem has been solved for best-first search.",

keywords = "graph-history interaction (GHI) problem, best-first search, base-twin algorithm (BTA)",

author = "DM Breuker and {van den Herik}, HJ and JWHM Uiterwijk and LV Allis",

year = "1999",

doi = "10.1007/3-540-48957-6_3",

language = "English",

isbn = "3-540-65766-5",

volume = "1558",

series = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",

publisher = "Springer Nature Switzerland AG",

pages = "25--49",

booktitle = "Computers and Games",

}