BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging is increasingly used in rectal cancer MRI to assess response after chemoradiotherapy. Certain pitfalls (eg, artefacts) may hamper diffusion-MRI assessment, leading to suboptimal diagnostic performance. Combining diffusion-weighted MRI with the underlying morphology on standard (T2-weighted) MRI may help overcome these pitfalls. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a pattern-based approach combining tumor morphology on T2-weighted MRI with distinct diffusion-weighted imaging signal patterns to assess response after chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer. DESIGN: Response to chemoradiotherapy was scored according to 4 patterns: 1) cases with either a clear residual mass with corresponding high-diffusion signal (A+) or completely normalized wall without diffusion signal (A-); 2) cases with circular and/or irregular fibrosis with (B+) or without (B-) small foci of diffusion signal scattered throughout the fibrosis; 3) cases with semicircular fibrosis with (C+) or without (C-) high diffusion signal at the inner margin of the fibrosis; and 4) polypoid tumors showing regression of the polyp and fibrosis at the site of the stalk with (D+) or without (D-) focal high-diffusion signal in the stalk. A total of 75 cases were rescored by an independent second reader to study interobserver variations. Standard of reference was histopathology or long-term outcome. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a single tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 222 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnostic performance to discriminate between a complete response and residual tumor was measured. RESULTS: The pattern-based approach resulted in a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 77%, positive predictive value of 88%, negative predictive value of 87%, and overall accuracy of 88% to differentiate between tumor versus complete response. Accuracies per pattern were 100% (A), 74% (B), 86% (C), and 92% (D). Interobserver agreement was good ( = 0.75). LIMITATIONS: The study included no comparison with routine (nonpattern) diffusion-MRI assessment. CONCLUSIONS: A pattern-based approach combining tumor morphology with distinct diffusion-weighted imaging patterns results in good diagnostic performance to assess response. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A433.
- Diffusion-weighted imaging
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Rectal cancer
- CLINICAL COMPLETE RESPONSE
- PREOPERATIVE CHEMORADIOTHERAPY