Estimating added value as an indicator of school effectiveness in the context of educational accountability often occurs using test or examination scores of students. This study investigates the possibilities for using scores of educational positions as an alternative indicator. A number of advantages of a value added indicator based on educational positions of students can be formulated, such as: (a) the societal significance of educational position as output measure; (b) the fact that a single indicator can be estimated for an entire school in a differentiated educational system, where not all schools provide education in all tracks; and (c) the expectation that value added based on educational positions leads to other incentives for schools than value added based on test scores. Empirical analysis of Dutch cohort data (VOCL'99) for secondary education showed considerable differences in effectiveness between schools in the positions of students. Furthermore, differential school effects were found for both socio-economic status and prior achievement. The phenomena of differential school effects for socio-economic status and prior achievement are linked to differences between schools in the kind of tracks in which the schools provide schooling.
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- SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH, MULTILEVEL MODELS, ACHIEVEMENT, PERFORMANCE, ACCOUNTABILITY, COMPLEXITY, ISSUES, GENDER