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Renewal of conditioned fear responses using a film clip as the aversive unconditioned stimulus

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Renewal of conditioned fear responses using a film clip as the aversive unconditioned stimulus. / Landkroon, Elze; Mertens, Gaëtan; Sevenster, Dieuwke; Dibbets, Pauline; Engelhard, Iris M.

In: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 65, 101493, 12.2019.

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@article{490efbbcb8cf4bce93db19b4d6d62e51,
title = "Renewal of conditioned fear responses using a film clip as the aversive unconditioned stimulus",
abstract = "BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms are valuable to investigate fear learning and the return of extinguished fear in the lab. However, their validity is limited, because the aversive stimuli (e.g., electric shocks) typically lack the modalities and complexity of real-world aversive experiences. To overcome this limitation, we examined fear acquisition, extinction and contextual renewal using an audiovisual unconditioned stimulus (US).METHOD: On day 1, 50 healthy participants completed an acquisition phase in a specific context (i.e., desk or bookcase, 'context A'). Pictures of colored lamps served as conditioned stimuli and an aversive film clip was used as US. On day 2, extinction took place in the same context ('context A') or in a different context ('context B'). Afterwards, renewal was tested in the acquisition context (AAA vs. ABA design).RESULTS: As hypothesized, fear acquisition and extinction, as measured by US expectancy ratings, fear potentiated startle (FPS), and skin conductance responses (SCRs), were successful. Most importantly, conditioned responding was renewed on all measures in the ABA condition, but not in the AAA condition. Differential renewal (i.e., larger renewal for CS + than for CS-) was only observed for US expectancy ratings.LIMITATIONS: The return of conditioned responses was non-differential for FPS and SCR.CONCLUSIONS: The current set-up enables investigation of fear renewal using an audiovisual US. Future studies can utilize this paradigm to investigate interventions that aim to reduce fear renewal by modifying the US memory, such as Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and imagery rescripting.",
keywords = "ANXIETY, AWARENESS, Aversive film clip, CONTEXT, CONTINGENCY, ELECTRIC-SHOCK, EXTINCTION, Extinction, Fear conditioning, MEMORY, RETURN, Renewal, Return of fear, US EXPECTANCY, VALIDITY",
author = "Elze Landkroon and Ga{\"e}tan Mertens and Dieuwke Sevenster and Pauline Dibbets and Engelhard, {Iris M}",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
year = "2019",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1016/j.jbtep.2019.101493",
language = "English",
volume = "65",
journal = "Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry",
issn = "0005-7916",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Renewal of conditioned fear responses using a film clip as the aversive unconditioned stimulus

AU - Landkroon, Elze

AU - Mertens, Gaëtan

AU - Sevenster, Dieuwke

AU - Dibbets, Pauline

AU - Engelhard, Iris M

N1 - Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PY - 2019/12

Y1 - 2019/12

N2 - BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms are valuable to investigate fear learning and the return of extinguished fear in the lab. However, their validity is limited, because the aversive stimuli (e.g., electric shocks) typically lack the modalities and complexity of real-world aversive experiences. To overcome this limitation, we examined fear acquisition, extinction and contextual renewal using an audiovisual unconditioned stimulus (US).METHOD: On day 1, 50 healthy participants completed an acquisition phase in a specific context (i.e., desk or bookcase, 'context A'). Pictures of colored lamps served as conditioned stimuli and an aversive film clip was used as US. On day 2, extinction took place in the same context ('context A') or in a different context ('context B'). Afterwards, renewal was tested in the acquisition context (AAA vs. ABA design).RESULTS: As hypothesized, fear acquisition and extinction, as measured by US expectancy ratings, fear potentiated startle (FPS), and skin conductance responses (SCRs), were successful. Most importantly, conditioned responding was renewed on all measures in the ABA condition, but not in the AAA condition. Differential renewal (i.e., larger renewal for CS + than for CS-) was only observed for US expectancy ratings.LIMITATIONS: The return of conditioned responses was non-differential for FPS and SCR.CONCLUSIONS: The current set-up enables investigation of fear renewal using an audiovisual US. Future studies can utilize this paradigm to investigate interventions that aim to reduce fear renewal by modifying the US memory, such as Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and imagery rescripting.

AB - BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms are valuable to investigate fear learning and the return of extinguished fear in the lab. However, their validity is limited, because the aversive stimuli (e.g., electric shocks) typically lack the modalities and complexity of real-world aversive experiences. To overcome this limitation, we examined fear acquisition, extinction and contextual renewal using an audiovisual unconditioned stimulus (US).METHOD: On day 1, 50 healthy participants completed an acquisition phase in a specific context (i.e., desk or bookcase, 'context A'). Pictures of colored lamps served as conditioned stimuli and an aversive film clip was used as US. On day 2, extinction took place in the same context ('context A') or in a different context ('context B'). Afterwards, renewal was tested in the acquisition context (AAA vs. ABA design).RESULTS: As hypothesized, fear acquisition and extinction, as measured by US expectancy ratings, fear potentiated startle (FPS), and skin conductance responses (SCRs), were successful. Most importantly, conditioned responding was renewed on all measures in the ABA condition, but not in the AAA condition. Differential renewal (i.e., larger renewal for CS + than for CS-) was only observed for US expectancy ratings.LIMITATIONS: The return of conditioned responses was non-differential for FPS and SCR.CONCLUSIONS: The current set-up enables investigation of fear renewal using an audiovisual US. Future studies can utilize this paradigm to investigate interventions that aim to reduce fear renewal by modifying the US memory, such as Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing and imagery rescripting.

KW - ANXIETY

KW - AWARENESS

KW - Aversive film clip

KW - CONTEXT

KW - CONTINGENCY

KW - ELECTRIC-SHOCK

KW - EXTINCTION

KW - Extinction

KW - Fear conditioning

KW - MEMORY

KW - RETURN

KW - Renewal

KW - Return of fear

KW - US EXPECTANCY

KW - VALIDITY

U2 - 10.1016/j.jbtep.2019.101493

DO - 10.1016/j.jbtep.2019.101493

M3 - Article

VL - 65

JO - Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

T2 - Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

JF - Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry

SN - 0005-7916

M1 - 101493

ER -