Research output

Industrial lignin from 2G biorefineries – Assessment of availability and pricing strategies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Associated researcher

  • Obydenkova, S.
  • Kouris, P. D.
  • Hensen, E. J. M.
  • Smeulders, D. M. J.
  • van der Meer, Y.

  • Boot, M. D.

Associated organisations


With a view to boost practical implementation of lignin conversion technologies, this paper assesses the availability of industrial lignin and evaluates pricing strategies applicable to multi-product biorefineries. The biorefineries, producing either denatured ethanol or sugar hydrolysate as a main product, can yield 43% and 61% of lignin residue (LR) comprising 33% and 23% of lignin by mass, respectively, without sacrificing the output of the main product and before electricity import has become indispensable. Analysis of the pricing strategies reveals that LR must be treated as a low-value by-product, and its minimum selling price (MSP) is driven mainly by the prevailing electricity price. Under the biorefinery net zero energy balance, and taking into account the LR market price adequacy, as well as the main probabilistic conditions, the upper range for the MSP is calculated at $43-70 and $18-37 per ton for biorefineries producing ethanol and hydrolysate, respectively.

    Research areas

  • Industrial lignin, Lignin availability, Lignin price, Multi-product biorefinery, Pricing strategy
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Original languageEnglish
Article number121805
Number of pages11
JournalBioresource Technology
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019