Factor and cluster analysis are used to identify different methods that public sector agencies in Europe use to innovate, based on data from a 2010 survey of 3273 agencies. The analyses identify three types of innovative agencies: bottom-up, knowledge-scanning, and policy-dependent. The distribution of bottom-up agencies across European countries is positively correlated with average per capita incomes while the distribution of knowledge-scanning agencies is negatively correlated with income. In contrast, there is no consistent pattern by country in the distribution of policy-dependent agencies. Regression results that control for agency characteristics find that innovation methods are significantly correlated with the beneficial outcomes of innovation, with bottom-up and knowledge-scanning agencies out-performing policy-dependent agencies. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
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- Innovation outcomes, Innovation survey, Public sector innovation, Taxonomy of innovation, Cluster analysis, Surveys, Bottom up, European Countries, Factor and cluster analysis, Innovation methods, Per capita income, Public sector, Public sector agencies, Scanning