Schizophrenia is a highly heritable psychiatric condition that displays a complex phenotype. A multitude of genetic susceptibility loci have now been identified, but these fail to explain the high heritability estimates of schizophrenia. In addition, epidemiologically relevant environmental risk factors for schizophrenia may lead to permanent changes in brain function. In conjunction with genetic liability, these environmental risk factors—likely through epigenetic mechanisms—may give rise to schizophrenia, a clinical syndrome characterized by florid psychotic symptoms and moderate to severe cognitive impairment. These pathophysiological features point to the involvement of epigenetic processes. Recently, a wave of studies examining aberrant DNA modifications in schizophrenia was published. This chapter aims to comprehensively review the current findings, from both candidate gene studies and genome-wide approaches, on DNA methylation changes in schizophrenia.
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- DNA methylation, Epigenetics, Schizophrenia, Psychosis, METHYLOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION, MB-COMT PROMOTER, BIPOLAR DISORDER, REELIN PROMOTER, GENE PROMOTER, BDNF GENE, PREFRONTAL CORTEX, POSTMORTEM BRAIN, RISK-FACTORS, BLOOD