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Cognitive reserve capacity: exploring and validating a theoretical model in healthy ageing

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Cognitive reserve capacity : exploring and validating a theoretical model in healthy ageing. / McGarrigle, Lisa; Irving, Kate; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Boran, Lorraine.

In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, Vol. 25, No. 6, 07.2019, p. 603-617.

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@article{2810329585bf448186190c73d1a01c15,
title = "Cognitive reserve capacity: exploring and validating a theoretical model in healthy ageing",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) capacity can be viewed as the maximum processing potential of neural systems that support adaptive cognitive performance in age-related cognitive decline. CR is a complex construct that can only be measured indirectly. Proxy measures (e.g., psychosocial/lifestyle variables) are traditionally used to reflect CR. However, strong relationships have been observed between these measures and cognitive functions (e.g., executive function [EF], processing resources [PR], fluid/crystallized abilities); therefore, the organizational structure of indicators implicated in CR remains unclear. The objective of this study was to test a hypothetical, theoretical model of CR capacity that includes both traditional CR proxy indicators and measures of cognitive function [Satz et al. (2011). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(1), 121-130], which remain, as yet, untested.METHOD: Construct validity of the model was investigated in healthy older adults through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) using data from the Maastricht Ageing Study (MAAS). A secondary CFA was conducted to validate the model using data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).RESULTS: EFA and CFA in MAAS established a two-factor model comprising EF/PR and cumulative cognitive enrichment (CCE), which was further validated in a secondary analysis in TILDA. Convergent and discriminant validity was supported in MAAS (range of R2 = .228-.635; factor correlation confidence interval (CI) = .622, .740) and TILDA (range of R2 = .172-.899; factor correlation CI = .559, .624).CONCLUSIONS: A dual model of CR elucidated the relationships between hypothesized indicators of CR capacity and revealed a two-factor structure suggesting that both control (EF/PR) and representational processes (CCE) are involved in CR capacity.",
keywords = "AGE, BRAIN, CONSTRUCT-VALIDITY, EDUCATION, Executive function, FLUID INTELLIGENCE, LIFE-SPAN, NORMATIVE DATA, OLDER-ADULTS, REASONING ABILITY, WORKING-MEMORY CAPACITY, cognition, cognitive decline, dementia, factor analysis, mental processes",
author = "Lisa McGarrigle and Kate Irving and {van Boxtel}, {Martin P J} and Lorraine Boran",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1017/S1355617719000250",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "603--617",
journal = "Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society",
issn = "1355-6177",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",
number = "6",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cognitive reserve capacity

T2 - Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

AU - McGarrigle, Lisa

AU - Irving, Kate

AU - van Boxtel, Martin P J

AU - Boran, Lorraine

PY - 2019/7

Y1 - 2019/7

N2 - OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) capacity can be viewed as the maximum processing potential of neural systems that support adaptive cognitive performance in age-related cognitive decline. CR is a complex construct that can only be measured indirectly. Proxy measures (e.g., psychosocial/lifestyle variables) are traditionally used to reflect CR. However, strong relationships have been observed between these measures and cognitive functions (e.g., executive function [EF], processing resources [PR], fluid/crystallized abilities); therefore, the organizational structure of indicators implicated in CR remains unclear. The objective of this study was to test a hypothetical, theoretical model of CR capacity that includes both traditional CR proxy indicators and measures of cognitive function [Satz et al. (2011). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(1), 121-130], which remain, as yet, untested.METHOD: Construct validity of the model was investigated in healthy older adults through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) using data from the Maastricht Ageing Study (MAAS). A secondary CFA was conducted to validate the model using data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).RESULTS: EFA and CFA in MAAS established a two-factor model comprising EF/PR and cumulative cognitive enrichment (CCE), which was further validated in a secondary analysis in TILDA. Convergent and discriminant validity was supported in MAAS (range of R2 = .228-.635; factor correlation confidence interval (CI) = .622, .740) and TILDA (range of R2 = .172-.899; factor correlation CI = .559, .624).CONCLUSIONS: A dual model of CR elucidated the relationships between hypothesized indicators of CR capacity and revealed a two-factor structure suggesting that both control (EF/PR) and representational processes (CCE) are involved in CR capacity.

AB - OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) capacity can be viewed as the maximum processing potential of neural systems that support adaptive cognitive performance in age-related cognitive decline. CR is a complex construct that can only be measured indirectly. Proxy measures (e.g., psychosocial/lifestyle variables) are traditionally used to reflect CR. However, strong relationships have been observed between these measures and cognitive functions (e.g., executive function [EF], processing resources [PR], fluid/crystallized abilities); therefore, the organizational structure of indicators implicated in CR remains unclear. The objective of this study was to test a hypothetical, theoretical model of CR capacity that includes both traditional CR proxy indicators and measures of cognitive function [Satz et al. (2011). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(1), 121-130], which remain, as yet, untested.METHOD: Construct validity of the model was investigated in healthy older adults through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) using data from the Maastricht Ageing Study (MAAS). A secondary CFA was conducted to validate the model using data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).RESULTS: EFA and CFA in MAAS established a two-factor model comprising EF/PR and cumulative cognitive enrichment (CCE), which was further validated in a secondary analysis in TILDA. Convergent and discriminant validity was supported in MAAS (range of R2 = .228-.635; factor correlation confidence interval (CI) = .622, .740) and TILDA (range of R2 = .172-.899; factor correlation CI = .559, .624).CONCLUSIONS: A dual model of CR elucidated the relationships between hypothesized indicators of CR capacity and revealed a two-factor structure suggesting that both control (EF/PR) and representational processes (CCE) are involved in CR capacity.

KW - AGE

KW - BRAIN

KW - CONSTRUCT-VALIDITY

KW - EDUCATION

KW - Executive function

KW - FLUID INTELLIGENCE

KW - LIFE-SPAN

KW - NORMATIVE DATA

KW - OLDER-ADULTS

KW - REASONING ABILITY

KW - WORKING-MEMORY CAPACITY

KW - cognition

KW - cognitive decline

KW - dementia

KW - factor analysis

KW - mental processes

U2 - 10.1017/S1355617719000250

DO - 10.1017/S1355617719000250

M3 - Article

VL - 25

SP - 603

EP - 617

JO - Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

JF - Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

SN - 1355-6177

IS - 6

ER -