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A First-in-Man Study with 4-Fluoroamphetamine Demonstrates it Produces a Mild Psychedelic State

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Abstract

The phenethylamine 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) is a so-called novel psychoactive substance with a chemical structure resembling that of amphetamine and MDMA. Since 4-FA users report their subjective experience ranges between the effects induced by amphetamine and MDMA, and it is known that both substances can produce an altered state of consciousness, this study tests whether 4-FA induces a psychedelic state. A placebo-controlled two-way crossover study in 12 healthy poly-drug users was conducted to test subjective and behavioral effects of 4-FA. 4-FA concentrations were determined in serum up to 12 hours after administration and a series of questionnaires and the picture concept test were administered between one hour and 11 hours post-administration. Findings showed that 4-FA induced a psychedelic state which was highest one hour after 4-FA administration, at peak 4-FA serum concentrations. The 4-FA-induced psychedelic state decreased over time and was in general associated with the decreasing 4-FA serum concentrations. There was no 4-FA-induced change in creative (flexible) thinking. It is concluded that while the 4-FA-induced psychedelic state is mild in intensity and in between that produced by amphetamine and MDMA as hypothesized, more research is needed to indicate whether 4-FA can change creative thinking.

    Research areas

  • 4-FA, creative thinking, dissociative state, psychedelic state serum concentrations, PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES NPS, PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT, D-AMPHETAMINE, HUMANS, CREATIVITY, CONSCIOUSNESS, NETHERLANDS, EXPERIENCES, VOLUNTEERS, AYAHUASCA
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Details

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-235
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Psychoactive Drugs
Volume51
Issue number3
Early online date24 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 May 2019