ZMILE, a multicomponent self-management intervention for adults with epilepsy: Rationale and description of the intervention

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In this paper, we aim to provide a comprehensive description of the multicomponent self-management intervention for adults with epilepsy, ZMILE.

Rationale or theory:

Acquiring self-management skills has been shown to play a vital role in enabling patients with epilepsy overcoming (health-related) struggles in daily life and coping with limitations their condition poses on them. ZMILE is a course consisting of education (to increase concordance to treatment), goal-setting (proactive coping), and self-monitoring.

Resources needed:

The course is guided by two nurse practitioners and each patient is allowed to bring one family member or friend. Self-monitoring plays an important role and can be done through e-Health tools or written diaries.

Processes involved:

During and after the course, patients are required to work toward a personally defined goal using a five-step approach by means of pro-active coping. Moreover, patients are expected to use self-monitoring tools to reflect on their own behavior and identify ways to optimize medication intake when required.


ZMILE is provided in an outpatient setting over five weekly group sessions and one booster session. From the start, patients are encouraged to set individual goals. Each group session will have a different theme but part of every session is reflecting on personal goals and to learn from eachother.


The ZMILE-intervention has been evaluated and may be a promising intervention in terms of effectiveness and feasibility for adults with epilepsy, relatives, and professionals. We present the adapted version which can be implemented in clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)629-638
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Rehabilitation
Issue number5
Early online date23 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Epilepsy
  • self-management
  • e-health
  • coping

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