Working towards personalization in medicine: main obstacles to reaching this vision from today's perspective

Lada Leyens*, Denis Horgan, Jonathan A. Lal, Kirsten Steinhausen, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Angela Brand

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Rapid advances in omics' sciences and technologies have elevated the relevance of personalized medicine. This article reviews the current advances in the application of personalized medicine, outlines and summarizes the key areas that still need to be addressed and gives recommendations in this direction. Eighteen relevant high-level reports on personalized medicine were reviewed in order to identify the gaps and needs that are present for the implementation of personalized medicine. We identify 12 key areas that represent the main obstacles on the road towards the personalization of medicine and divide these 12 key areas into four domains, namely: scientific research and stakeholder collaboration; translational tools; regulations and systematic early dialog with regulators; and uptake into healthcare systems. All of the evaluated reports agree on the imperative need for intensive collaboration among all stakeholders with early active participation and changes in the current healthcare infrastructure.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)641-649
JournalPersonalized Medicine
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • cost-benefit analysis
  • genomics
  • healthcare systems
  • P4 health
  • personalized medicine
  • public health genomics
  • stakeholder collaboration
  • systematic early dialog
  • technology transfer
  • translational research


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