Willingness to Contribute to Bio-Larviciding in the Fight against Malaria: A Contingent Valuation Study among Rice Farmers in Rwanda

A. Rulisa*, L. van Kempen, L. Mutesa, E. Hakizimana, C.M. Ingabire, F. Kateera, C.J.M. Koenraadt, M. van Vugt, B. van den Borne

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

2 Citations (Web of Science)


There is broad consensus that successful and sustained larval source management (LSM) interventions, including bio-larviciding campaigns, require embeddedness in local community institutions. Ideally, these community structures should also be capable of mobilizing local resources to (co-)finance interventions. To date, farmer cooperatives, especially cooperatives of rice growers whose economic activity facilitates mosquito breeding, have remained under the radar in designing community-based bio-larviciding campaigns. This study explores the potential of rice farmer cooperatives in Bugesera district, Rwanda, to take up the aforementioned roles. To this purpose, we surveyed 320 randomly selected rice farmers who belonged to one of four rice cooperatives in the area and elicited their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for application of Bti, a popular bio-larvicide, in their rice paddies. Results from a (non-incentivized) bidding game procedure, which tested two alternative contribution schemes showed that financial contributions would be significantly different from zero and sufficient to carry a co-financing share of 15-25 per cent. A strong heterogeneity in mean WTP is revealed across cooperatives, in addition to variation among individual farmers, which needs to be anticipated when engaging farmer cooperatives in LSM.</p>
Original languageEnglish
Article number11575
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • willingness-to-pay
  • malaria control
  • larval source management
  • rice farming
  • contingent valuation
  • Rwanda
  • TO-PAY

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