Which Triple Aim related measures are being used to evaluate population management initiatives? An international comparative analysis

Roy J. P. Hendrikx*, Hanneke W. Drewes, Marieke Spreeuwenberg, Dirk Ruwaard, Jeroen N. Struijs, Caroline A. Baan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Introduction: Population management (PM) initiatives are introduced in order to create sustainable health care systems. These initiatives should focus on the continuum of health and well-being of a population by introducing interventions that integrate various services. To be successful they should pursue the Triple Aim, i.e. simultaneously improve population health and quality of care while reducing costs per capita. This study explores how PM initiatives measure the Triple Aim in practice. Method: An exploratory search was combined with expert consultations to identify relevant PM initiatives. These were analyzed based on general characteristics, utilized measures and related selection criteria. Results: In total 865 measures were used by 20 PM initiatives. All quality of care domains were included by at least 11 PM initiatives, while most domains of population health and costs were included by less than 7 PM initiatives. Although their goals showed substantial overlap, the measures applied showed few similarities between PM initiatives and were predominantly selected based on local priority areas and data availability. Conclusion: Most PM initiatives do not measure the full scope of the Triple Aim. Additionally, variety between measures limits comparability between PM initiatives. Consensus on the coverage of Triple Aim domains and a set of standardized measures could further both the inclusion of the various domains as well as the comparability between PM initiatives.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-485
JournalHealth Policy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2016


  • Population management
  • Triple Aim
  • Population health
  • Quality of care
  • Costs
  • Measures

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